The current series, which will cover Maariv on Friday night and Kiddush, is available for sponsorship. Please contact Rabbi Reingold for more information. We are beginning siman 10. The Chayei Adam writes that if a person is so poor that if they spend money on wine, they will not have any more money to spend on the seudah other than to buy dry bread, it is still appropriate to spend the money on wine. However, if by spending money on wine, he will not even have enough money for bread, he should buy bread, and make kiddush on bread. Kiddush requires kiddush b’makom seudah, and there is an additional chiyuv to eat bread on Shabbos, so it makes more sense to make kiddush on bread. The Piskei Mishnah Berurah points out that if a person prefers bread over wine, it would be preferable to spend the money on bread, which should cost less than wine, and then use the extra money (from the price difference between bread and wine) for other seudah items. When the Chayei Adam says to spend the money on wine, he is referring to a case where one does not have a preference between wine and bread. In siman 11, the Chayei Adam writes that if a person only has one cup of wine, they should use it at night. If he can add water to it, he should split it between night and day. If he cannot split it, even though it would make more sense to use bread on Friday night and save the wine for Shabbos day (since we learned that one can only use bread for kiddush on Friday Night), they should use it for kiddush at nighttime, since the primary kiddush is at night. The Chayei Adam mentions adding water to wine. The Gemara says that it used to be that wine was so strong, it was normal to dilute it. If it was not diluted, it would be too strong and it was actually incorrect to be used for making kiddush. Nowadays, our wines are significantly more mild. Nevertheless, the poskim assume one can still add water to wine. The Gemara says that the preferable solution for dilution is 3 parts water to 1 part wine. That shiur can be extended to 6 parts water, one part wine. Either way, if it is so watered down it no longer has the taste of wine, one cannot use it. Regarding grape juice, because it does not have a strong flavor from the outset, one should hesitate to add water. Nevertheless, should one need to dilute it, they should dilute it half and half, and even up to 1 part wine to 2 part water. If one wishes to dilute wine with grape juice, they do not need to be concerned with these ratios, as they are not applicable to when grape juice is added to wine. Summary
- If one is poor, as long as they have enough money to buy bread, they should buy kiddush wine over other seudah items. Otherwise, they should buy bread and make kiddush over bread.
- However, if one prefers bread over wine, they may buy bread and make kiddush on it, and then use the extra money for other seudah items.
- If one only has one cup of wine, they should dilute it to split it for Friday Night and Shabbos day. If they are unable, they should use it Friday Night.
- In case of necessity, wine and grape juice may be diluted; wine up to 1 part wine to 6 parts water, and grape juice, one part grape juice to two parts water.
- If the wine or grape juice loses its flavor due to diluting, it is not kasher for kiddush or borei pri hagefen.
- There is no ratio for diluting wine with grape juice