We have finished siman 3. The Chayei Adam ends the siman with a practical example. If people are traveling, and stop for Shabbos, if they put up food to cook, they must be sure it is cooked halfway before Shabbos. Again, we see the Chayei Adam stressing that one can rely on maachal ben derusai and does not need to be machmir that the food is fully cooked (see more in S0045).
The next siman, siman 4, we will not learn inside, as the scenario is not relevant nowadays. However, we will discuss it outside.
The Chayei Adam discusses the concern of a situation in which one places a pot directly on the coals, such that when they remove the pot, it causes the coals to shift in a way that stokes them. When the coals become fired up, the person has transgressed the issur of maavir, making a fire. Thus, there is a concern when removing a pot from coals of transgressing maavir.
Nowadays, even if a pot is directly on top of the flame of a gas stove, even if the shape of the flame changes when removing the pot, the heat of the fire remains the same, so there is no concern of maavir.
The Chayei Adam adds a point which is relevant to us, which is whether one can ask a non-Jew to remove the pot from the coals. Even if the Jew were to remove the pot from the coals, they do not have intent to perform maavir, so it is a davar she’eino miskavein. However, since it is a psik raisha, inevitable that it will happen, so it is assur.
Nonetheless, one may ask a non-Jew to remove the pot, because there is no issur of amira l’achum on a psik raisha. Amira l’achum is when a Jew instructs a non-Jew to perform melacha on Shabbos. The non-Jew is considered an extension of the Jew (we will learn more about amira l’achum in Klal 3). However, in this scenario, where neither the Jew nor non-Jew have intent to increase the flame, the non-Jew is an extension of the Jew in regards to the removal of the pot. The fact that there is an increase to the flame was not part of the instruction nor request of the Jew, so there is no issue of amira l’achum in such a scenario.
Another understanding as to why there is no issue of amira l’achum on a psik raisha is because psik raisha is a lower level of issur, so Chazal did not extend the prohibition of amira l’achum to it.
The Mishnah Berurah, in siman 253, discusses this scenario and points out that there is an opinion which is machmir and holds that the issur of amira l’achum does apply to psik raisha. However, in other places, the Mishnah Berurah does not seem to pasken that we are machmir on psik raisha regarding amira l’achum.
A practical example would be if a person left on a refrigerator light. They can directly ask a non-Jew to open the door for them, since they are requesting that the non-Jew open the door, not that the non-Jew turn on the light. However, it should be noted that Rav Shlomo Zalman holds that since it is now a standard part of the process of opening a refrigerator door that a light turns on, it is more than a psik raisha and part of the process of opening the door. If so, asking a non-Jew to open the door is the equivalent to asking a non-Jew to turn on the light, and it is assur. However, other poskim disagree, and understand it is still considered a psik raisha and is permitted.
- According to the Mishnah Berurah, even if a food item has reached maachal ben derusai before the onset of Shabbos, it should only be left on the fire if the fire is gerufah uketumah (i.e., has a blech), or if it is mitztameik veyafeh lo.
- If the food has reached maachal ben derusai at the onset of Shabbos, according to the Mishnah Berurah, bedieved it does not require gerufah uketumah. The Chayei Adam and Chazon Ish holds that lechatchilla it is not required. One should follow the __
- Amira l’achum on a psik raisha is muttar.
- Practically, regarding a refrigerator in which the lights have been left on, Rav Shlomo Zalman held that the lights have become such an integral part of the opening of the door that it is no longer a psik raisha. Other poskim disagree and maintain that it is still a psik raisha. One should follow __