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Preparing for Shabbos Early in the Day 2, Introduction to Kavod and Oneg – Hilchos Shabbos – (Klal 1 Siman 2) Erev Shabbos- S0008

D'var Halacha
D'var Halacha
Preparing for Shabbos Early in the Day 2, Introduction to Kavod and Oneg - Hilchos Shabbos - (Klal 1 Siman 2) Erev Shabbos- S0008

We are continuing in siman 2. We have learned that a person should make their purchases for Shabbos as early as possible on Friday morning. If the items will not be available after davening, they should purchase them before davening, but otherwise the correct order is to daven first and then make their purchases. 

If a person has a set time in which they learn after davening, the assumption in halacha is that if it is a set amount of time, so there is a clear end time and no concern they will get involved and distracted, they should learn before making these purchases as well. However, if a person wishes to learn a broad topic, without any specific time restraints or goals, we are concerned that they will get distracted by the learning, so they should make their purchases first and then learn. 

 We will begin the next siman with an introduction. The Chayei Adam will next discuss the concept of kavod Shabbos. The Rambam, in the last perek of hilchos Shabbos, writes about the mitzvos we were given as a way to ensure we approach Shabbos properly with the appropriate respect and understanding. We know there is a lo saasei against performing melacha, but we were also given mitzvos asei in order to create the proper ambiance of Shabbos. One of these mitzvos is zachor (as we have discussed), and shamor. The neviim added two more. The Rambam refers to them as divrei soferim, which generally refers to mitzvos derabanan. Mitzvos added by the neviim are known as divrei kabbalah. They are considered stronger than a mitzvah derabanan, but not quite a mitzvah deoraysa.

The Rambam writes that the two mitzvos added by the neviim are kavod shabbos and oneg shabbos. The pasuk, in Yeshya 58, says vekarasa la’shabbos oneg, velikdosh Hashem mechubad. Shabbos should be a day which we relate to as delightful, and the day which is holy to Hashem should be given respect and honor. The Rambam does not seem to list them as Torah-level mitzvos, even though some suggest that they are actually Torah-level mitzvos. According to those opinions, even though they are not mentioned in the Torah, they would explain that since the concept is rooted in the Torah, the navi is clarifying it but the inherent idea is a Torah-level mitzvah . 


If one has a fixed time for learning, their learning takes precedence over Shabbos purchases (unless the items will be unavailable afterwards). If their learning is not fixed, we are concerned they may get distracted by their learning, so they should make their purchases first.


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