We are continuing in siman 4, but have taken a tangent to discuss the halachos of pas akum, pas palter, and pas yisroel. Today, we will discuss the items to which pas palter applies.
Pas palter applies to bread. Bread is baked, not cooked. Because of its significance as a staple in people’s lives, Chazal made a unique takana against it, and it was not simply included within the umbrella of the prohibition against foods cooked by a non-Jew.
The takana is not limited to bread. Anything which is known as pas haba’ah bekisnin, bread-like mezonos, is included in this takana. Break-like mezonos refers to mezonos items which share halachic characteristics of bread, even though they are not hamotzi. Oatmeal or cream of wheat are not considered pas haba’ah b’kisnin, but items such as cake and pie are. (see more about pas haba’ah b’kisnin in shiurim 1065-1082.) Halacha considers these items as bread, but because of the added ingredients, they do not receive the significant status bread normally receives.
Bread has three halachos. 1) Bread receives a hamotzi, 2) everything else in the meal is considered secondary to the bread so they do not require their own bracha, 3) and one recites birchas hamazon at the end of a bread meal.
Pas haba’ah b’kisnin is not the mainstay of a meal, so its bracha is mezonos and al hamichya. However, if one decides to consume it like bread, in that they consume a large amount of it as the mainstay of a meal, it receives the hamotzi bracha. This mezonos item can function either as pas or as mezonos. Therefore, the halachos of pas palter apply to pas haba’ah b’kisnin as well.
Thus, for example, if one wishes to buy cookies, and there is a pas yisroel option and pas palter option, we go back to the considerations we learned previously about when one may be lenient regarding pas palter. According to Ashkenazim, if the pas palter is cheaper, tastes better, or the specific type is not available in a pas yisroel option within a 20 minute drive, one may purchase the pas palter. However, according to Sephardim, unless there is no pas yisroel available whatsoever within a 20 minute drive, one would not be allowed to purchase the pas palter.
Additionally, as we learned yesterday, the Chayei Adam holds that one should strive to consume only pas yisroel on Shabbos, so this would apply to all pas haba’ah b’kisnin as well.
We have learned three reasons why one should bake their own bread for Shabbos: to demonstrate kavod Shabbos; esoterically, to replenish the challah destroyed when Adam Harishon ate for the eitz hadaas; and in order to avoid the leniency of pas palter.
The Magen Avraham and Mishnah Berurah quote this chumrah of pas Yisrael as well and hold that one should try to bake their own bread for Shabbos. However, the Elyah Rabbah and Tosfos Shabbos do not hold of the chumrah not to eat pas palter on Shabbos . During the Aseres Yemei Teshuva, the Rema holds that one should be machmir not to consume pas palter, but the Rema is silent regarding Shabbos. Nevertheless, because of the opinions of the Magen Avraham and Mishnah Berurah, one should try to be careful and avoid pas palter on Shabbos.
- The Shulchan Aruch holds that pas palter is only permitted when pas yisroel is unavailable within a distance of approximately 20 minutes. The Rema holds that pas palter is muttar if it is significantly cheaper or tastes better than pas yisroel, or if the specific type of bread is not available as pas yisroel.
- The halachos of pas palter apply both to bread and to pas haba’ah b’kisnin.
- The Chayei Adam holds that preferably, one should only consume pas yisroel on Shabbos. This is the opinion of the Magen Avraham and Mishnah Berurah as well.