We have finished the simanim of the Chayei Adam regarding kiddush, and we will now clarify
additional points not mentioned in the Chayei Adam.
The Chayei Adam does not clarify whether it is preferable to be yotzei kiddush through shomeah k’oneh or to make kiddush oneself.
The sefer Olas Shabbos, an early peirush on the Shulchan Aruch which predates the Magen Avraham (and is quoted by the Magen Avraham, usually to disagree) writes that it is preferable for a person to recite kiddush oneself. He explains that mitzvah bo yoser mi’shlucho, it is preferable to do a mitzvah yourself rather than through a shliach. Apparently, he understands that the concept of shomeah k’oneh works through shlichus, so it is preferable that one fulfill the mitzvah themselves rather than through a shliach. The Pri Megadim also understands that shomeah k’oneh works through shlichus.
The sefer Tosfos Shabbos argues on the Olas Shabbos. He holds that shomeah k’oneh does not work through shlichus, but rather that the two parties share the words together, and the person listening is just as much a part of the words spoken as is the person making kiddush. The Tosfos Shabbos brings a strong proof from the Gemara in Brachos, where Bais Hillel holds it is preferable that everyone be yotzei with one bracha of borei me’orei haeish on motzei Shabbos, due to the concept of b’rov am hadras melech. Beis Shammai holds that since they are discussing a case of people in a beis medrash, it will interrupt people’s learning, or they will not hear the bracha properly, so it is preferable that every person make the bracha on their own. Beis Shammai does not argue that every person should make their own bracha due to mitzvah bo yoser mishlucho, but just that practically it makes more sense for people to make their own bracha. Thus, it would appear from the Gemara that both Beis Shammai and Beis Hillel understand that the concept of b’rov am hadras melech takes precedence, and mitzvah bo yoser mishlucho does not apply here. The Mishnah Berurah follows this opinion as well, and the minhag of the litvish poskim is to follow the Tosfos Shabbos.
Many chassidim follow the Olas Shabbos, because apparently, kabbalistically, it is preferable to recite kiddush oneself. Certainly, if one is concerned they will not be able to hear the medakeish properly, such as they are far away or the mekadeish does not have a strong voice, they should make their own kiddush. We would not apply b’rov am hadras melech if the person will not be yotzei the mitzvah.
In a situation where a person was not able to be yotzei with the mekadeish (he was far away, the mekadeish stumbled on the words, the person listening is hard of hearing, etc.), but does not feel it is realistic or possible to ask to make their own kiddush, we will need to discuss if there is any way for them to be yotzei. We will discuss this question in the upcoming shiur, be’ezras Hashem.
- It is preferable for people to be yotzei with one kiddush, due to the concept of b’rov am hadras melech. If a person will not be yotzei, such as they will not hear the mekadeish properly, they should certainly make their own kiddush.