We are beginning siman 14. The Chayei Adam writes that the hadlaka should be done in the makom achila, where one will be eating. When one has a choice between the makom achila and elsewhere, the makom achila takes precedence. Within the makom achila, the neiros should be on the table so that they light up the table and add to the oneg Shabbos. As we have learned, with the reality of electric lights, the primary purpose of the neiros is that the neiros beautify the meal in some way. One should place them on the table, or another place adjacent to the table where they beautify the meal. If they are off in some corner where they cannot be seen, it does not enhance the meal, and it is problematic to light in such a manner. The neiros should not be moved, as we have learned (S0142). On Shabbos, there is an additional issue of muktzah, which will prohibit one from moving the neiros at all. However, on Yom Tov, the neiros are not necessarily muktzah. Therefore, if they need to be moved, they can be moved, since the entire home is the makom hadlakah. The Chayei Adam writes that some women had the minhag to light the neiros in the sukkah and then immediately bring them inside, so they would not be stolen. Even though there is a chiyuv hadlakah in both places (in the sukkah for the seudah and in the home for moving around), each place is its own makom, so it is problematic to move them from one makom chiyuv to another. If the sukkah is immediately adjacent to the home, or within the home, this problem does not apply. One should light the neiros in the sukkah and keep them there for the duration of the meal. After the meal, if one wishes to move the neiros inside, they may do so, since the neiros were already used for their purpose in the sukkah. In simanim 15-18, the Chayei Adam discusses the different types of oils and wicks appropriate to use for hadlakas neiros, based on the mishnayos at the beginning of Bameh Madlikin. The primary concern of Chazal was that since neiros were the primary source of illumination, if the neiros are not burning well, one will tilt the ner to bring the oil closer to the wick. Doing so on Shabbos is an issur deoraysa. Therefore, Chazal were concerned with using certain oils which do not draw into the wick well, and certain wicks which do not draw the oil well. Practically, most people light nowadays with candles or olive oil, which burn well. Few people make their own wicks and have these concerns, so we will skip these simanim. Summary
- One should light the neiros in the makom achila, and in a way that they enhance the meal. Practically they should be on the table or somewhere close to it.
- On Shabbos, the neiros cannot be moved because they are muktzah. On Yom Tov, they may be moved within their makom chiyuv, but not to another makom chiyuv.