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Hearing Kiddush in a Different Pronunciation; Standing vs. Sitting (Klal 6) Hilchos Shabbos – S0192

D'var Halacha
D'var Halacha
Hearing Kiddush in a Different Pronunciation; Standing vs. Sitting (Klal 6) Hilchos Shabbos - S0192


We have finished the simanim of the Chayei Adam regarding kiddush, and we are clarifying 

additional points not mentioned in the Chayei Adam. 


  1. If a person hears kiddush from someone who pronounces the words differently from them, such as an ashkenazi to a sephardi, chassidish to litvish, etc., multiple poskim hold they are yotzei. Rav Ovadia, who also holds one is yotzei, makes a fascinating point. We have learned (S0187) that the Shulchan Aruch holds that one is only yotzei from someone else’s bracha (shomeah k’oneh) when they understand what is being said. If so, if a person is unable to understand the mivtah (accent/pronunciation) of the person being motzi them, according to the Shulchan Aruch they will not be yotzei. According to the Rema, Taz and Magen Avraham, a person is yotzei in Lashon Hakodesh even if they do not understand what is being said. If so, it comes out that an ashkenazi can be yotzei from a sephardi even if they do not understand their mivtah, but a sephardi cannot be yotzei from an ashkenazi if they cannot understand their mivtah. 


  1. We need to discuss standing or sitting for kiddush. Generally, part of the reason a person can be motzi someone else when eating is because he’seivu yachad, they ate together with heseivah. Nowadays, where we no longer perform heseivah, sitting together in a fixed manner (i.e., making a kvius to eat together) approximates heseivah and allows for one to be motzi another in a birchas hanehenin. If they are not sitting together for the purpose of eating, one cannot be motzi another. If so, it would seem that kiddush should be recited while seated. 

However, kabbalistically, the kiddush should be recited standing up. Additionally, the Mishnah Berurah points out that the paragraph of vayechulu is a form of testimony, and we know that testimony must be delivered while standing. Therefore, those who follow kabbalah (generally the sephardim and chassidim) will stand for the entire kiddush. 

The minhag of the Rema is to sit for the entire time, in accordance with what we learned above. The Mishnah Berurah suggests a compromise that one should stand for the paragraph of vayechulu, and sit for the bracha of hagafen and mekadeish hashabbos. Many follow the approach of the Mishnah Berurah. 

Even those who have the minhag to stand still need to stand by the table, to show they are part of the kvius of those who are eating together. If they are wandering around, they are not yotzei. 


  1. Regarding the chiyuv chinuch for ketanim, the chiyuv chinuch begins once they understand the concept of Shabbos, both for kiddush and havdalah. In the summer, when Shabbos is late, they should be taught to be yotzei with their parents (when feasible) or even to make kiddush or havdalah on their own. If they went to bed on Friday night without having made kiddush (e.g., it was too early) the question becomes whether they should recite kiddush the next morning. Regarding kriyas shema, Chazal did not create a chiyuv chinuch for kriyas shema at night at all, because they knew it would often be too late for a child to be able to fulfill it. Furthermore, even if the child has a chiyuv chinuch, they may not have a chiyuv of hashlama, to make up the mitzvah if they missed it. We will continue to clarify this question in the next shiur, be’ezras Hashem.



  • One is yotzei kiddush from a person with a different mivtah. A sepharadi is not yotzei if they cannot understand the mivtah of the mekadeish.
  • The ashkenazi minhag is to sit for kiddush, and the MIshnah Berurah suggests standing for veyechulu and sitting for the rest. The sephardi and chassidish minhag is to stand for the entire kiddush.
  • The chiyuv ketanim for kiddush begins once they are able to understand the concept of Shabbos.

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