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Tosefes Shabbos 14 – What is Assur and Muttar During Bain Hashamshos and Tosefes Shabbos (Klal 5 Siman 6) Erev Shabbos – S0124

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Tosefes Shabbos 14 - What is Assur and Muttar During Bain Hashamshos and Tosefes Shabbos (Klal 5 Siman 6) Erev Shabbos - S0124
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We are continuing in siman 6. We have touched on the ideas that the Chayei Adam will discuss; today we will learn them inside.

 

The Chayei Adam writes that dinei derabanan are not automatically permitted bein hashmashos. However, if one has a significant need, or it is for a mitzvah, it is muttar. The Chayei Adam gives an example of significant need. He writes that if one buys keilim from a non-Jew, he must tovel them, and cannot use them until he tovels them. If so, when one towels the kli, they are effecting a halachic change in the kli. There is an issur derabanan of tikun maneh, fixing a broken kli. It is a derabanan derivative of makeh bepatish or boneh. Tikun maneh does not just refer to physical fixes, but to halachic fixes as well, and therefore it is assur to tovel a kli on Shabbos. However, if there is a significant need bein hashmashos, such as that the person does not have any other keilim, they may tovel the kli during bein hashmashos.

 

The Chayei Adam gives an example of a derabanan which is is assur during bein hashmashos, even though it is a significant need. We will begin with a little background. Chazal prohibited separating terumos and maasros on Shabbos, due to the concept of tikun maneh. Before one separates terumos and maasros, the produce is assur to eat, and after they separate it, it is muttar to eat. Thus, although it is not a physical fix, it creates a halachic reality of heter, so Chazal included it in the issur of tikun maneh. 

We have already learned (S0122) that it is muttar to separate terumos and maasros from demai, but not from vadai tevel (produce about which it is certain terumos and maasros were not separated). 

When a person makes a dough, they must remove a piece and give it to the kohen. This piece is known as challah. We no longer give the challah to a kohen, both because we do not know for certain who is a kohen, and because tamei challah anyways must be burned. 

Mideoraysa, the mitzvah of hafrashas challah only applies in Eretz Yisroel. Outside of Eretz Yisroel, separating challah is a chiyuv derabanan. If one already baked the dough, they can still separate challah after it is baked. If so, if one forgot to separate challah from their bread before Shabbos, they should be able to separate it bein hashmashos, as it is arguably a significant need to be able to eat one’s challah. However, the Chayei Adam writes that one cannot separate challah bein hashmashos. We will discuss why in the upcoming shiur, be’ezras Hashem.

 

Summary

  • If one did not accept Shabbos early, during bein hashmashos, it is muttar to perform an issur derabanan for the purpose of a mitzvah or significant need, such a tevilas keilim. However, not all dinei derabanan are muttar, such as hafrashas challah, which is assur bein hashmashos.

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